Wild Things by Paul Sieveking

Originally published in the Fortean Times 161, August 2002.  For more Fortean tales of interest to anarchists, check out the OP zine “The Man Who Could Not Be Hanged” in the Chapbooks & Lit section.

 

Come on, poor babe:
Some powerful spirit instruct the kites and ravens
To be thy nurses! Wolves and bears, they say,
Casting their savageness aside, have done
Like offices of pity.

Shakespeare, Winter’s Tale, Act II, scene 3, line 185

Tales of children being adopted and nurtured by wolves, bears, monkeys, and other animals crop up with remarkable
regularity. As the medieval world gave way to the modern, the wodewose or wild
man of the woods shifted from an archetype of chaos, insanity and heresy to one
of natural harmony and enlightenment, culminating in Rousseau’s idea of the
Noble Savage. But the wild man was both savage and sublime, an image of desire
as well as punishment. Wild or feral children elicit both heart-rending pity
for their abandonment and wonder for their survival against such terrible odds.

Ancient mythology has many stories of children nurtured by animals, but the
first ‘true’ account of a feral child was recorded by the usually dependable
Roman historian Procopius. A baby boy, abandoned by his mother during the chaos
of the Gothic wars in about AD 250, was found and suckled by a she-goat. When
the survivors returned to their homes, they found the boy living with his
adopted mother and named him Aegisthus. Procopius states he saw the child
himself.(1)

Goats don’t figure much in subsequent feral accounts, although a child said to
have been raised by goats for eight years was found in the Peruvian Andes in
1990.(2)

Carl Linnaeus, the great biological classifier, introduced a new species of
man, Homo ferens, in 1758, characterising the creature as mutus, tetrapus and
hirsutus (a mute quadruped covered with hair).(3) The attribution of hairiness
was probably influenced by the legend of the hirsute wodewose, but a number of feral
children are thus described, as we shall see. Linnaeus provided anecdotal case
histories of varying reliability: Jean de Liège, a Lithuanian bear-boy, the
Hesse wolf-boy, the Irish sheep-boy, the Bamberg calf-boy, the Kranenburg girl,
the two Pyrenees boys, Wild Peter of Hanover, and the savage girl from
Champagne. These primary cases are briefly described below.

Many academics regarded the whole phenomenon of feral children with scepticism;
they pointed out that most of the children never learnt to speak, while those
that did could recall very little of their wild existence. Similarly, the
circumstances of their discovery were by their nature anecdotal, taking place
far from habitation and often depending on the testimony of a solitary witness.
Dismissing testimony as superstition and folklore became commonplace in 19th
century science, to the detriment of folk wisdom and forteana.

Robert Kerr, whose translation of Linnaeus appeared in 1792, dismissed Homo
ferens as imposture and exaggeration, while the 1811 survey of feral cases by
JF Blumenbach, the father of physical anthropology, was characterised by Robert
Zingg in 1940 as inadequate and unfair.(4) In 1830 the Swedish naturalist KA
Rudolphi proclaimed that all the feral children were either fictional or
congenital idiots, and this became the orthodox view, reinforced by Sir Edward
Tylor, the father of social anthropology. According to Claude Levi Strauss in
1949, “most of these children suffered from some congenital defect, and
their abandonment should therefore be treated as the consequence of the
abnormality which almost all display and not, as often happens, as its
cause.”(5)

It’s true that some feral children, such as Dina Sanichar of Sekandra (1867),
the Lucknow child (1954) and the first Ugandan monkey-child (1982) were
mentally or physically handicapped. Many others, however, were not; and neither
were they intentionally abandoned, but had escaped from abusive parents or were
lost by accident or in the chaos of war — and surviving without human help
required considerable native intelligence.

Note Levi Strauss’s qualifying phrases “most of” and “almost
all”; some of the case histories refuse to be explained away in this
fashion, particularly those of Victor of Aveyron, Kaspar Hauser and the Midnapore
wolf-girls Kamala and Amala, described in detail by persons of standing —
respectively a doctor, a lawyer and a priest. As with all strange phenomena, it
only requires one case to be demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt to allow the
possibility that many of the others are also true.

The first modern published account of ‘historical’ as opposed to mythological
feral children was a work by the medical writer Phillipus Camerius, published
in Frankfurt in 1609.(6) This described the Hesse wolf child of 1344 (of whom
more below) and the Bamberg calf-child. The latter “had an extraordinary
suppleness in his limbs and went on all fours with great agility. In this
posture he would fight the largest dogs with his teeth, and attack them so
intrepidly that he put them to flight. He was not, however, of a fierce
nature.”

Sir Kenelm Digby, later one of the Royal Society’s founders, is the first to
mention Jean de Liège in 1644, having interviewed those who had seen him a few
years earlier.(7) As a five-year-old during the religious wars, Jean took to
the woods with fellow villagers. When the fighting moved elsewhere, the
villagers returned home, but the timorous Jean remained in hiding for 16 years.
In the wild, his senses sharpened; he could scent “wholesome fruits or
roots” at a great distance. When he was finally captured at the age of
about 21, he was naked, “all overgrown with hair”, and incapable of
speech. In human society, he learned to talk, but lost his acute sense of
smell.

Nicholaus Tulp, the Dutch doctor portrayed by Rembrandt in The Anatomy Lesson,
described the Irish sheep-boy in 1672. “There was brought to Amsterdam…
a youth of 16 years, who being lost perhaps by his parents and brought up from
his cradle amongst the wild sheep of Ireland, had acquired a sort of ovine
nature. He was rapid in body, nimble of foot, of fierce countenance, firm
flesh, scorched skin, rigid limbs, with retreating and depressed forehead, but
convex and knotty occiput, rude, rash, ignorant of fear, and destitute of all
softness. In other respects sound, and in good health. Being without human
voice he bleated like a sheep, and being averse to the food and drink we are
accustomed to, he chewed grass only and hay, and that with the same choice as
the most particular sheep…

“He had lived on rough mountains and in desert places… delighting in
caves and pathless and inaccessible dens.” Huntsmen had finally netted
him. “His appearance was more that of a wild beast than a man; and though
kept in restraint, and compelled to live among men, most unwillingly, and only
after a long time did he put off his wild character. His throat was large and
broad, his tongue as it were fastened to his palate.”(8)

Another sheep-boy was captured near Trikkala in Greece in 1891. He had been living
with his woolly family for four years.(9)

The Kranenburg girl was discovered in the woods outside Zwolle in the Dutch
province of Overyssel in 1717. She had been kidnapped at 16 months from her
home in Kranenburg, and was found dressed in sacking and living on a diet of
leaves and grass. There was no evidence that animals had befriended her. After
her capture, she learnt spinning and sign language, but never mastered speech.

The primary (and uncorroborated) source on the Pyrenees feral boys is Jean-Jacques
Rousseau’s Discourse on the Origin of Human Inequality in 1754. All he says is
that they were discovered in 1719, “running up and down the mountainside
like quadrupeds.”(10)

The first really famous feral child was Wild Peter, “a naked, brownish, black-haired
creature” was captured near Helpensen in Hanover on 27 July 1724, when he
was about 12. He climbed trees with ease, lived off plants and seemed incapable
of speech. He refused bread, preferring to strip the bark from green twigs and
suck on the sap; but he eventually learnt to eat fruit and vegetables. He was
presented at court in Hanover to George I, and taken to England, where he was
studied by leading men of letters. He spent 68 years in society, but never
learnt to say anything except “Peter” and “King George”,
although his hearing and sense of smell were said to be “particularly
acute”.(3,10,11)

The wild girl of Champagne had probably learned to speak before her
abandonment, for she is a rare example of a wild child learning to talk coherently
— although she could remember little of her feral existence, which she thought
had lasted two years. When coaxed from a tree in Songi near Chalons in the
French district of Champagne in 1731, she was aged about 10, barefoot, and
dressed in rags and skins with a gourd leaf on her head. In a pouch she carried
a cudgel and a knife inscribed with indecipherable characters. She shrieked and
squeaked, and was so dirty (or possibly painted) that she was mistaken for a
black child. Her diet consisted of birds, frogs and fish, leaves, branches and
roots. Given a rabbit, she immediately skinned and devoured it.

“Her fingers and in particular her thumbs, were extraordinarily
large,” according to a contemporary witness, the famous scientist Charles
Marie de la Condamine. She is said to have used her thumbs to dig out roots and
swing from tree to tree like a monkey. She was a very fast runner and had
phenomenally sharp eyesight. When the Queen of Poland, the mother of the French
queen, passed through Champagne in 1737 to take possession of the Duchy of
Lorraine, she heard about the girl and took her hunting, where she outran and
killed rabbits.(12) She was given the name Marie-Angélique Memmie Le Blanc, and
later eked out an existence in Paris by making artificial flowers and hawking
her memoirs (written by Madame Hecquet). She died, like most of the feral
children, in obscurity.

The two most famous feral cases of the 19th century are Victor of Aveyron, made
famous by Francois Truffaut’s wonderful L’Enfant Sauvage, and Kaspar Hauser,
the subject of Werner Herzog’s haunting film of the same name. A great deal has
been written about both of these, most recently by Michael Newton in Savage
Girls and Wild Boys, so I will concentrate on lesser-known cases. There are about
80 examples of feral children, and many will only be referred to in passing. A
fairly accurate chronological table of 53 cases appears in Lucien Malson’s
book.(13)

Victor, Kaspar and Kamala represent the three main types of feral child: in
isolation, in confinement, and among animals. Children locked up for years
often develop autistic symptoms, leading the psychologist Bruno Bettelheim in
1959 to lump all three types under the heading of infantile autism. “While
there are no feral children,” he wrote, “there are some very rare
examples of feral mothers, of human beings who become feral to one of their
children.”(14) This denial of genuine feral cases is closely related to
the orthodox anthropological position and requires an unwarranted dismissal of
remarkably consistent evidence and testimony.

MOTHER WOLVES

“In all my travels, the only time I ever slept deeply was when I was with
wolves… The days with my wolf family multiplied. I have no idea how many
months I spent with them but I wanted it to last forever — it was far better
than returning to the world of my own kind. Today, though most memories of my
long journey are etched in tones of grey, the time spent with the wolves… is
drenched in colour. Those were the most beautiful days I had ever experienced.”
So wrote Misha Defonseca, a Jewish orphan who, from the ages of seven to 11,
wandered through occupied Europe during World War II, living on wild berries,
raw meat and food stolen from farmhouses, and occasionally teaming up with
wolves.(15)

Another child who had learned language before his life with wolves was Marcos
Pantoja, “the wild child of the Sierra Morena”, who was about seven
when he was abandoned in the desolate mountainous forests of southwest Spain in
1953. He spent the next 12 years without speaking to another human being.(16)

Since the suckling of Romulus and Remus, the wolf has been associated with the
rearing and protection of children in the wild. A seven-year-old boy was
supposedly captured from a wolf lair in the German state of Hesse in 1344, but
the first published account didn’t appear until 1609.(6) He described his
capture by wolves at the age of three. They offered him the pick of the hunting
spoils, carpeted a pit with leaves to protect him from the cold and made him
run on all fours until he had attained their speed and could make the most
prodigious leaps. After his capture, he frequently stated that he would rather
associate with wolves than human beings.

Fourteen wolf-children were found in India between 1841 and 1895, seven of
which were described by General WH Sleeman, the nemesis of the Thugs.(17) The
first was captured in Hasunpur (near Sultanpur in what is now Uttar Pradesh),
and showed most of the typical wolf child characteristics. His favourite food
was raw meat, and he was unable to speak. “There were evident signs, on
his knees and elbows, of his having gone on all-fours,” wrote Sleeman;
“and when asked to run on all-fours, he used to do so, and went so fast
that no-one could overtake him.” Some wolf children responded to
education. One found in Sultanpur in 1895 allegedly grew up to be a
policeman.(18)

The most famous wolf-children are the two girls captured in October 1920 from a
huge abandoned ant-hill squatted by wolves near Godamuri in the vicinity of
Midnapore, west of Calcutta, by villagers under the direction of the Rev JAL
Singh, an Anglican missionary. The mother wolf was shot. The girls were named
Kamala and Amala (above), and were thought to be aged about eight and two.
According to Singh, the girls had misshapen jaws, elongated canines, and eyes
that shone in the dark with the peculiar blue glare of cats and dogs. Amala
died the following year, but Kamala survived until 1929, by which time she had
given up eating carrion, had learned to walk upright and spoke about 50
words.(19)

There were further reports of Indian wolf-children in 1927 and 1933. “Ramu
the Wolf Boy” found naked in a third class waiting room in Lucknow railway
station in 1954, aged about 10, was probably mentally retarded. He had deformed
limbs, uttered animal cries and ate raw meat by snatching at it with his teeth
(of which he had two upper sets); but there appears to be no evidence that he
actually lived with wolves. He died in Lucknow hospital in 1968.(20)

In May 1972, a boy aged about four was discovered in the forest of
Musafirkhana, about 20 miles (32km) from Sultanpur, the region where five of
the wolf-children mentioned by Sleeman came from. The boy was playing with wolf
cubs. He had very dark skin, long hooked fingernails, matted hair and calluses
on his palms, elbows and knees. He shared several characteristics with Kamala
and Amala: sharpened teeth, craving for blood, earth-eating, chicken-hunting,
love of darkness and friendship with dogs and jackals. He was named Shamdeo and
taken to the village of Narayanpur. Although weaned off raw meat, he never
talked, but learnt some sign language. In 1978 he was admitted to Mother
Theresa’s Home for the Destitute and Dying in Lucknow, where he was re-named
Pascal and was visited by Bruce Chatwin in 1978. He died in February 1985.(20)

In 1962, according to an unsubstantiated report, geologists found a boy aged
about seven running with a wolf pack in a bleak desert region of Turkmenistan,
central Asia. The men threw a net over the boy, but the wolves rushed to
protect him, tearing at the net. In the end, all the wolves were killed. It was
four years before the boy, named Djuma, was taught to utter a few words. He
told anthropologists how he rode on the back of his wolf mother when the pack
went hunting, and later learned to run on all fours. He was cared for in the
Republican Hospital in Ashkhabad and it was years before he got used to
sleeping in a bed. By the time of a news report in 1991, he was still crawling
on all fours, eating only raw meat, and biting when he was angry. Dr Rufat
Kazirbaev, chief of psychiatric research in the hospital, doubted if he would
ever lose his wolf ways.(21)

In 1970, Elmira Godayatova, six, tried to follow her mother through a wood in
Azerbaijan to her grandmother’s house in the village of Milgam. Mrs Godayatova
told Elmira to go home — but she never got there. Relatives, friends and
police searched in vain. Twenty-three days later, a forest ranger found the
little girl sitting under a tree. A local newspaper reported: “She ate
berries and grass, drank water from springs, and played with ‘doggies and
puppies’. Apparently the girl found a family of wolves, and wolves are known
never to attack near their home.” Elmira was taken to hospital to recover.(22)

Wolves saved another Azerbaijani girl in 1978. Mekhriban Ibragimov, three, lost
in a snow-filled ravine, was found after 16 hours, sheltering in a cave with a
wolf and three cubs. She said the mother wolf licked her face.(23)

Shepherds found a naked boy aged about five in 1971, cowering in a cave in the
Abruzzi Mountains of central Italy. Doctors believed he had been abandoned as a
baby and brought up by mountain goats or wolves. He was named Rocco. Various
families tried without success to ‘domesticate’ him, after which he was placed
in a psychiatric hospital near Milan. He had not learned to talk and was still
eating with his hands. He walked on all fours and liked to be stroked — but
retreated snarling into corners when frightened.(24)

TEXAS WOLF CHILD

According to legend, in the early part of the 19th century, a wolf girl roamed
the banks of the Devil’s River near Del Rio in what is even now the
sparsely-populated wilderness of south-west Texas. The girl’s mother died in
childbirth, and her father, John Dent, was killed in a thunderstorm while
riding for help. “The child was never found, and the presumption was that
she had been eaten by wolves near the Dents’ isolated cabin”, wrote the
aptly named Barry Lopez in his book Of Wolves and Men.

Lopez said a boy living at San Felipe Springs in 1845 reported seeing several
wolves and “a creature, with long hair covering its features, that looked
like a naked girl” attacking a herd of goats. Others made similar reports
the following year. Apache Indians told several times of finding a child’s
footprints among those of wolves in that country.

A hunt commenced and on the third day the girl was cornered in a canyon. A wolf
with her was driven off and finally shot when it attacked the party. The girl
was bound and taken to the nearest ranch, where she was untied and locked in a
room. That evening, a large number of wolves, apparently attracted by the
girl’s loud, mournful and incessant howling, came around the ranch. The
domestic stock panicked, and in the confusion the girl escaped.

According to Lopez, the girl was not seen again for seven years. In 1852, a
surveying crew exploring a new route to El Paso saw her on a sand bar on the
Rio Grande, far above its confluence with Devil’s River. “She was with two
pups. After that, she was never seen again.”(25)

CARE BEARS

According to the Athenian historian Apollodorus (168-88 BC), the Greek heroine
Atalanta was abandoned by her father Iasus at birth because he desired a son;
but she was suckled by a she-bear (the symbol of Artemis), till hunters found
her and brought her up among themselves.

News reports do suggest that, given the right conditions, bears will take care
of human infants. In 1971, five-year-old Goranka Cuculic got lost in the forest
near her home village of Vranje in Yugoslavia. Three days later she was found
by a farmer and related how she had met a bear and two cubs. The bear licked
her face, and she played with the cubs and snuggled up to them at night in a
cave.(26) In October 2001, a 16-month-old toddler went missing in Iran and was
found in a bears’ den three days later, safe and well. It was thought that the
baby had been breast-fed by a mother bear.(27)

There are accounts of children raised by bears in Denmark and the mountains of
Savoy in the early 17th century. In 1669 hunters in a Lithuanian forest saw two
little boys among a group of bears. They captured one and took him to Warsaw
where he was named Joseph and presented to the king of Poland, who later passed
him to the Vice Chamberlain of Posnan. Several times, Joseph escaped to the
woods where he would suck the sap of trees and gather wild honey and crab
apples. Once a wild bear, notorious for having killed two men, was seen to
approach him and lick his face. Other Lithuanian bear-children were captured in
1661 and 1694. It was suggested that they had become separated from their
families following raids by marauding Tartars.(28)

In 1767 hunters from Fraumark in lower Hungary came upon a bear’s den high in
the mountains, where they found a girl of about 18, tall and brown-skinned. Her
behaviour was “very crude” and when taken to an asylum she refused to
eat anything but raw meat, roots and tree bark.(29)

Sir James Frazer mentions a girl who was said to have been nursed by a bear.
Coolies from the tea gardens found her in a forest in Jalpaigori in 1892,
sitting beside a huge bear den. Aged two or three, she walked on all fours and
bit and scratched, but was gradually taught to walk upright and wear clothes,
although she never learned to speak.(30)

A 14-year-old wild girl was caught in the jungle near Naini Lal, Uttar Pradesh,
in July 1914. Named Goongi (‘dumb’), she ran with great agility on her hands
and feet and was covered all over with a thick growth of hair. She refused a
bed and cooked food, and slept under a bundle of straw. The hunter Jim Corbett
speculated that she had been brought up by bears, pointing out that her
climbing ability, eating habits and diet were similar to bears, and that the
deep scratches on the upper part of her body could well have been caused by
being carried by bears.(31)

In 1937 George Maranz described a visit to a Turkish lunatic asylum in Bursa,
Turkey, where he met a girl who had allegedly lived with bears for many years.
Hunters in a mountainous forest near Adana had shot a she-bear and then been
attacked by a powerful little “wood spirit”. Finally overcome, this
turned out to be a human child, though utterly bear-like in her voice, habits
and physique. She refused all cooked food and slept on a mattress in a dark corner
of her room. Investigations showed that a two-year-old child had disappeared
from a nearby village 14 years earlier, and it was presumed that a bear had
adopted her.(32)

MONKEY BOYS

TISSA FROM SRI LANKA

Pemawathie, 42, a female woodcutter, captured a naked, longhaired boy ambling
about on all fours with a troupe of monkeys in the jungle near her home village
of Tissamaharama, southern Sri Lanka, in early 1973. She named him Tissa after
the village. As his habits were more animal than human, she handed him over to
the police, who placed him in a private welfare centre 10 miles (16km) outside
Colombo, run by Miss LP Morawake. Apparently, two other “animal boys”
had been tamed there, one of whom drank milk straight from a cow’s udder. Three
months after his admission, Tissa was still learning to walk upright and was
not yet talking, although he could eat food from a plate with his hand. Most
telling perhaps was that he had learned to smile.(33)

BURUNDI MONKEY BOY

This child was said to have been found in Burundi in 1973 by either
missionaries or hunters, playing in a group of monkeys. He was aged about six,
and had the manners and behaviour of a monkey. American anthropologist Diane
Skelly said he was covered in a fine layer of hair, which disappeared once he
took to wearing clothes. After studying the boy intensively, Dr Harlan Lane
(author of The Wild Boy of Aveyron) and Dr Richard Pillard, said he had
suffered a “disastrous illness” at the age of two, resulting in
organic retardation. They could account for every year of his life and he was
never in the wild.(34)

ROBERT OF UGANDA

In 1982, during the chaos of civil war, a boy aged three was left for dead in
the Luwero triangle of Uganda. Three years later, soldiers came upon a group of
Vervet monkeys. All scattered apart from one female protecting a small bundle
which turned out to be a human child. At the Naguru orphanage in Kampala he was
named Robert. He was deaf and dumb. By the age of eight, he had been
toilet-trained and learned to walk and sleep in a bed.(35)

JOHN OF UGANDA

One day in 1991, a Ugandan villager called Milly Sebba went further than usual
in search of firewood and came upon a little boy with a pack of monkeys. She
summoned help and the boy was cornered up a tree. He was brought back to
Milly’s village and fed hot food, which made him very ill for three days. He
had many wounds and scales, and a lot of hair. His knees were almost white from
walking on them. His nails were very long and curled round and he wasn’t
house-trained. The villagers removed tapeworms from his behind, some of them
reportedly 4ft (122cm) long.

A villager identified the boy as John Sesebunya, last seen in 1988 at the age
of two or three when his father murdered his mother and disappeared. After John
was discovered, his father was traced, but was not interested in caring for the
wild boy. A few weeks later the father was found hanged, a victim of civil
unrest. After his mother was murdered John had fled to the jungle, apparently
terrified he would be next.

For the next three years or so, he lived wild. He vaguely remembers monkeys
coming up to him, after a few days, and offering him roots and nuts, sweet
potatoes and kasava. The five monkeys, two of them young, were wary at first,
but befriended him within about two weeks and taught him, he says, to travel
with them, to search for food and to climb trees. “I didn’t sleep very
well,” he remembers, “head down and bottom in the air… or I would
climb a tree.” Some sources say John’s guardians were Vervet monkeys
(Cercopithecus aethiops); others say they were black-and-white Colobus monkeys
(Colobus guereza).

The boy was adopted by Paul and Molly Wasswa, who run the Kamuzinda Christian
Orphanage in Masaka, 100 miles (160km) from Kampala. He has been studied by a
host of experts, who are convinced that he is a genuine feral child. When left
with a group of monkeys he avoided eye contact and approached them from the
side with open palms, in classic simian fashion. He has a strange lopsided gait
and pulls his lips right back when he smiles. He tends to greet people with a
powerful hug, in the way that monkeys greet each other. He has, however,
learned to wink — something a monkey would never do.

He is now about 16 years old with a fine singing voice, and on 6 October 1999 came
to Britain as part of the 20-strong Pearl of Africa Childre’s Choir, run by Mr
Wasswa’s organisation A.F.R.I.C.A. (Association for Relief and Instruction of
Children in Africa).(36)

BELLO OF NIGERIA

In 1996, a boy aged about two was found by hunters, living with a family of
chimpanzees in the Falgore forest, 90 miles (145km) south of Kano in Nigeria.
He was taken to the Tudun Maliki Torrey children’s home in Kano, where the
staff named him Bello. He is thought to be the son of nomadic Fulani people who
travel through the region. Mentally and physically disabled, with a misshapen
forehead, sloping right shoulder and protruding chest, he was probably
abandoned by his parents because of his disabilities. Such abandonments of
disabled children are common among the Fulani, a pastoralist people who travel
great distances across the West African Sahel region. In most instances the
children die, but this child appears to have been adopted by the chimps.

“We do not know exactly how long he would have been with the chimps,”
said Abba Isa Muhammad, the home’s child welfare officer. “Based on the
traits he exhibits, we estimate that he was adopted when he was no more than
six months old and nursed by a nursing chimp.”

Bello is now (April 2002) aged about eight, but has the size and weight of a
four-year-old. When he was first brought in, he walked in a chimpanzee-like
fashion, moving on his hind legs but dragging his arms on the ground. At first
he was very restless, smashing and throwing things and leaping about at night
from bed to bed in the dormitory, but today he is much calmer. He still leaps,
chimpanzee-like, and claps his hands over his head repeatedly, cupping his
hands, and does not speak but makes chimpanzee-like noises.(37)

GAZELLE BOYS

SPANISH SAHARA

Jean-Claude Auger,(38) an anthropologist from the Basque country, was
travelling alone across the Spanish Sahara (Rio de Oro) in 1960 when he met
some Nemadi nomads, who told him about a wild child a day’s journey away. The
next day, he followed the nomads’ directions. On the horizon he saw a naked
child “galloping in gigantic bounds among a long cavalcade of white
gazelles”.

Auger found a small oasis of thorn bushes and date palms and waited for the
herd. Three days later, his patience was rewarded, but it took several more
days of sitting and playing his galoubet (Berber flute) to win the animals’
confidence. Eventually, the child approached him, showing “his lively,
dark, almond-shaped eyes and a pleasant, open expression… he appears to be
about 10 years old; his ankles are disproportionately thick and obviously
powerful, his muscles firm and shivering; a scar, where a piece of flesh must
have been torn from the arm, and some deep gashes mingled with light scratches
(thorn bushes or marks of old struggles?) form a strange tattoo.”

The boy walked on all fours, but occasionally assumed an upright gait,
suggesting to Auger that he was abandoned or lost at about seven or eight
months, having already learnt to stand. He habitually twitched his muscles,
scalp, nose and ears, much like the rest of the herd, in response to the
slightest noise. Even in deepest sleep he seemed constantly alert, raising his
head at unusual noises, however faint, and sniffing around him like the
gazelles.

Auger describes how he gradually learnt to decipher the significance of every
gazelle gesture and movement, which the boy shared with the herd. There was a
complex code of stamping to indicate distance of food sources; and social
interaction through exchanges of licking and sniffing, with the boy emitting a
kind of mute cry from the back of his throat with his mouth closed. He had one
word: kal (khah), meaning stone or rock. One senior female seemed to act as his
adoptive mother. He would eat desert roots with his teeth, pucking his nostrils
like the gazelles. He appeared to be herbivorous apart from the occasional
agama lizard or worm when plant life was lacking. His teeth edges were level
like those of a herbivorous animal.

Two years after his stay with the herd, Auger returned with a Spanish army
captain and his aid-de-camp, who kept their distance to avoid frightening the
herd off. Curiosity eventually overcame them and they chased the boy in a jeep
to see how fast he could run. This frightened him off altogether, though he
reached a speed of 32-34mph (52-54km/h), with continuous leaps of about 13ft
(4m). Olympic sprinters can reach only 25mph (40km/h) in short bursts.

His pursuers failed to keep up across the rough terrain, and eventually the
herd disappeared as the jeep sustained a puncture. In 1966 an unsuccessful
attempt was made to catch the boy in a net suspended from a helicopter; unlike
most of the feral children of whom we have records, the gazelle boy was never
removed from his wild companions. Auger took no photographs of the boy, being
more concerned with protecting him from human interference than providing
evidence to convince the sceptics of his existence. Perhaps the whole thing is
a fairy story…

MIDDLE EAST

According to the fortean zoologist Ivan Sanderson, the story of an earlier
gazelle-boy “turned out to be a plant by a bored newsman in Cairo during
World War II”; but he gives no further details.(39) The version I have
traced is a report from Baghdad in August 1946 by a certain M Abdul Karim, and
the story bears re-telling. A wild boy had been caught in the desert straddling
Transjordan, Syria and Iraq. Amir Lawrence al Sha’alan, chief of the Ruweili
tribe, was out hunting in this inhospitable region, whose only inhabitants were
the staff at the British-run stations of the Iraq Petroleum Company.

“I was astonished to see what looked like a boy running amid a herd of
gazelles we were chasing,” said the Amir. “I called to the occupants
of the other cars to stop shooting. We were still far away, but could see that the
boy was running as fast as the gazelles. We chased the herd in our cars for 50
miles (80km), during which time he kept up with them, bounding along with a
half-human, half-animal gait. Suddenly we saw the boy stumble and fall. When we
came up to him we found that his leg had been injured by a large stone. He
looked up at us with fear starting from his luminous eyes and shrank from our
touch, emitting cries like a wounded gazelle.”

The Amir tried to feed and clothe him, but he kept escaping, so he took him to
Dr Musa Jalbout at one of the Petroleum Company stations, who later passed him
into the care of four Baghdad doctors. Dr Jalbout said he acted, ate and cried
like any gazelle, and had no doubt that he had lived all his life among the
gazelles, being suckled by them and cropping the sparse desert herbage along
with the herd. He was thought to be aged about 15.

Apparently speechless, he was covered in fine hair and ate only grass —
although a week before Karim’s report he had had his first meal of bread and
meat. He could allegedly run at 50 mph (80km/h), twice the Olympic record. He
was 5ft 6in (1.7m) tall, “so thin that the bones could be counted easily
beneath the flesh, yet stronger physically than a normal full-grown man.”
An unnamed “Syrian expert of desert lore in Damascus” is quoted as
saying that Bedouin women giving birth in the desert often abandon their babies
to the mercy of nature. Most died, but in very rare cases the child was adopted
by animals.(40)

BIG CAT GUARDIANS

A leopard-child was reported by EC Stuart Baker in the Journal of the Bombay
Natural History Society (July 1920). Since he was in administrative charge of
the North Cachar Hills at the time when he investigated the case, he was in an
excellent position to obtain a true account of the facts. The boy was stolen
from his parents by a leopardess in the North Cachar Hills near Assam in about
1912, and three years later recovered and identified. “At the time the
child ran on all fours almost as fast as an adult man could run, whilst in
dodging in and out of bushes and other obstacles he was much cleverer and
quicker. His knees… had hard callosities on them and his toes were retained
upright almost at right angles to his instep. The palms of his hands and pads
of his toes and thumbs were also covered with very tough horny skin. When first
caught, he bit and fought with everyone… and any wretched village fowl which
came within his reach was seized, torn to pieces and eaten with extraordinary
rapidity.”

According to an unsubstantiated report, a wild girl aged about two was found in
a forest south of Jansi in north central India in May 1986. She was slumped
over a fatally injured female panther.(41)

THE KUANO RIVER BOY

The village of Baragdava stands on the small river Kuano in the Basti district
of Uttar Pradesh in northern India, near the border with Nepal. One afternoon
in February 1973, the local priest was walking across the nearby dam across the
Kuano when he caught sight of a naked boy loping towards the water. He appeared
to walk out on the water to mid-stream. Suddenly he dived in and emerged a
minute later with a large fish which he ate, before floating downstream. The
priest told the villagers of his sighting, and when he described the lad and
estimated that he was about 15, an old woman called Somni said he was her son
Ramchandra who had been carried away by the river when he was a year old.
Another villager saw him a few days later, and for a while there was
considerable local interest, and people flocked to the river to see him; but he
was not to be found. Then in May 1979, Somni spotted him lying in a field. She
crept up on him and recognised a birthmark on his back. He awoke and fled. A
strict watch was mounted, he was caught and taken to the village.

He was virtually hairless and his ebony-black skin had a greenish tinge. He
managed to escape back to the river, but his experience of human society made
him less reclusive, and he would come and eat bowls of spinach in water put out
for him. Hundreds of villagers, policemen, officials of the irrigation
department, and hard-boiled journalists saw him walk, run, or recline on the
surface of the water, and stay submerged for longer than ordinary humans could
manage. Among the witnesses was Nazir Malik, who wrote up the story for the
Allahabad magazine, Probe India.

The boy’s insteps and toes were very hard and walked with a clumsy, loping
gait, often holding one hand to his forehead. He was unable to speak (or hear,
according to some witnesses). He ate fish, frogs and other marine creatures,
raw meat, leafy vegetables, gourds and red chillies. He reached for food
directly with his mouth. In summer months when Kuano dried to a trickle, he was
ill at ease; but when the river rose in floods, he was gleeful and enjoyed
diving in the swift current. It was a mystery how he avoided the jaws of the
many crocodiles.

Somni had a strange tale of how Ramchandra was conceived. On a stormy evening
during the monsoon season, she was returning from mending a fence around the
family field, as her husband was laid low with fever. She was 40 years old, a
mother of three. Her way was blocked by an enormous being who seemed more like
a spirit than a man. He threw her to the ground and raped her in the pouring
rain. As suddenly as he appeared, he vanished.

It was believed locally that a long time ago a holy man dug a well in the area.
He climbed down to invoke the goddess of water, but was drowned as the well
quickly filled. Some of the villagers believed it was the spirit of this man
that possessed Somni and then took the child into his watery care.

In 1985, Hubert Adamson, an estate agent in Hampstead with a keen interest in
feral children, visited Baragdava to find out more about the river boy. From
the head man he learned that the boy was dead. One evening in 1982, at the age
of about 24, he had approached a chai shop in the village of Sanrigar, some 300
yards from the river. A woman, possibly taking fright at his appearance or
rejecting a clumsy sexual advance, threw boiling water over him. Dazed and in
pain, he ran back to the river, never to emerge again. His body, badly
blistered and mutilated by fish bites, was later found in the river. The police
considered bringing charges against the woman, but these were later
dropped.(42)

THE DELPHOS CHILD

In July 1974, four people reported seeing a young child, 10 or 12 years old,
with blond, matted hair, dressed in tattered red clothing, running through
vines and brush in a wooded area north-west of Delphos in Kansas. Children had
seen the girl eating from cat and dog dishes.

One of the witnesses, Mrs Joe Stout, saw the child early in the morning of 22
July in a shed on a vacant lot covered with a thicket of trees and saplings.
She came face-to-face with the child sitting on a picnic table no more than six
feet away. “She — we’re not sure if it is a boy or a girl, except that
she had on a red dress — made a gurgling sound and when I started to step
closer, she jumped down off the picnic table and went through a small hole in
the wall. She’s definitely human. She’s not deformed, but she runs on all
fours”, said Mrs Stout.

During a late night search of the area on the same day, Mr Stout was scratched
on the shoulder and a teenage neighbour, Kevin Marsh, was scratched on the
throat from behind. Neither got more than a glimpse of their small attacker.
Leonard Simpson, sheriff of Ottawa County, organised a posse to search the
neighbourhood, but nothing was found.(43)

DOG BOYS

Kunu Masela, six, was seen for three years scavenging for food round the Kenyan
town of Machakos with a dog. Mrs Grace Kubuu asked him where he lived.
“With Poppy” was all he would say. One evening she followed them out
into the bush and saw the dog dragging together some banana leaves to make a
bed for them.

The local press ran the story, after which his mother came forward. Mrs Rukia
Ali Murefu, 29, a coffee plantation worker who had moved to Nairobi, said that
her husband had left her when Kunu was born in 1977, and she had struggled for
three years to care for him. She was very poor, and eventually abandoned him in
the bush. “I knew Kunu would be cared for by God — and I was right,”
she said. “Poppy my mother. Poppy give me milk,” Kunu told a
reporter. In 1983, he was in a government juvenile home and the dog was being
cared for by a market trader.(44)

On 16 June 2001, an 11-year-old boy called Alex Rivas was rescued from the sea
as he tried to escape from the police. For many months, he had been living with
a pack of about 15 stray dogs in a cave near the southern Chilean port of
Talcahuano, scavenging out of dustbins and drinking milk from the teat of a
bitch that had recently given birth. Filthy and with his teeth rotting from dog
milk and drugs, he was known to local people as “Dog Boy” and would
snarl at any human who tried to approach him. He was described as extremely
violent, malnourished, hyperactive and inarticulate. He had broken front teeth,
a scarred cheek, and was suffering from hypothermia.

After being abandoned by his 16-year-old mother when he was only five months old,
he had a disrupted childhood before being put into a children’s home in
Chillancito, near Concepcion, in 1998. He constantly ran away, only to be
caught. He finally joined the dog pack and managed to evade capture. In
November 2001, he again escaped from the Chillancito children’s home and FT has
seen no further reports.(45)

Children nurtured by dogs have also turned up in the Philippines (1982),
Germany (1988), Oklahoma (1989), England (1992), Hungary (1994), Romania
(1994), and Italy (1994). Ivan Mishukov, six, was rescued from a pack of dogs
with whom he had had been living for two years in Retova, west of Moscow.(46)

A feral child was caught in the Brasov region of Transylvania, Romania, in
early February 2002. When shepherd Manolescu Ioan’s car broke down, he was
forced to walk home across country from his pastures in the shadow of the
Fagaras Mountains. At 6am he came upon a naked, wild-eyed child living in a
cardboard box and covered with a plastic sheet. He was eating from the carcass
of a dead dog. Manolescu reported his find to the police, who later captured
the boy.

It was believed he had lived alone in the forest for years, but doctors thought
that he must have had some protection; perhaps he had been looked after by some
of the many wild dogs in the region. He was the size of a normal four-year-old,
but his missing front milk teeth pointed to an age of seven. He had rickets,
anemia, the distended belly of the half-starved, and frostbite on his feet and
legs. His face and head were scarred and scabbed. He ate whatever he was given,
but didn’t recognise fruit. He was not toilet-trained. Hospital personnel in
Fargas called him Mowgli, after the character in Kipling’s Jungle Book.

The chief nurse of the children’s ward said: “He only knows two words —
‘Mama’ and ‘food’ — and is very happy in his bedroom at the hospital as long
as there is food there. He has dark hair and dark eyes and once his hair was
washed and cut and he was given a bath he looked really presentable, but he
tends to walk like a chimp rather than upright and tries to sleep under his bed
rather than on it. But if he has some food in his hand he is the nicest little
chap.”

About a week after his capture, he was identified as Traian Caldarar, lost
three years ago at the age of four. After being re-educated at an orphanage in
Brasov, he was reunited in April with his mother Lina Caldarar, 23, in the
remote village of Vistea de Jos, less than seven miles (11km) from where he was
found in February. “I loved my son, but I had a violent husband who beat
me,” she said. Traian Ciurar, 24, the boy’s father, is married to Ms
Caldarar under gypsy law. When she fled back to her family to escape her
husbandl’s cruelty, he prevented her from taking her son. She believes he ran
away for the same reason. “I was distraught but there was nothing I could
do,” she said. “I hoped he had perhaps been adopted by another
family.”

Traian appears to be on the mend, but he is still not house-trained.
“Someone needs to keep an eye on him at all times because it’s easy for
him to get hurt,” said his mother. “He still can’t identify the
dangers in the street. Like an untrained puppy, he’ll just run across the road,
regardless of whether there are cars coming.”(47)

RAISED BY BIRDS

Sidi Mohamed, the ostrich-boy, told the following amazing story in 1945. At the
age of five or six he wandered off from his North African family, found an
ostrich nest with chicks hatching, befriended the parent birds and lived with
them for 10 years, learning to live off grass and to match their speed in
running. At night, he was sheltered by the two ostriches which each extended a
wing over him. Finally he was caught by mounted ostrich hunters and restored to
his parents.

A Sydney woman was fined £1 in November 1903 for leaving her child to be reared
in a chicken run, with the consequence that the little one could do nothing but
imitate the fowls in every way, even to roosting at night.

Since birth, Isabel Quaresma, 10, lived in a chicken coop in Tabua, Portugal.
She was thrown pieces of bread and shared the chicken feed. Her mother was a
mentally deficient rural worker. In 1980, she was taken by a district hospital
worker and put in a Lisbon clinic. She was unable to walk and was not
house-trained. She gestured and made sounds like a chicken and ate with her
hands. Her body was severely stunted with a tiny head, probably due to
malnutrition. One eye was clouded with a cataract, possibly the result of a hen
scratch.

In the 1990s, a two-year-old Filipino known as Jesse Boy was discovered locked
in a henhouse where his stepfather confined him for seven months after badly
beating him. He crowed like a rooster, clucked like a hen and picked up food as
if his mouth were a beak. He also flapped his arms like wings as if trying to
fly.

He was rescued by a childcare agency in the town of Manito after a tip-off.
After some unspecified time of therapy, he gave up his early morning crowing
and ate at table, but in 1999 he could still only speak in monosyllables. He
also continued to flap his arms when playing with other disadvantaged
children.(48)

PIG CHILDREN

In the 1830s, there were two accounts of children suckled by pigs — in
Salzburg, Germany, and in Overdyke, Holland. Sergei Mironovich Kirov, a member
of the Soviet politburo and Stalin’s best friend, was allegedly suckled by a
sow.(49)

In 1984, the Chinese Xinhua News Agency reported the tale of a peasant girl in
Liaoning province who had been suckled by sows and slept in their sty at
nights. Wang Xianfeng was left as an infant with the family’s pigs because her
deaf-mute father and mentally retarded mother were unable to care for her and
no one else lived near them. The girl lived exclusively on sows’ milk until she
was almost five. Then she graduated to pig swill. She was always first at the
trough when it was filled in the mornings. In 1983, psychologists discovered
Wang, then nine, had the intelligence of a three-year-old. The report did not
say when or how the girl was found.

Experts from the China Medical Science University and the Anshan Institute of
Psychometry took the child in hand, and by 1987 the 13-year-old could read 600
Chinese characters, count from one to 100, sing children’s songs and do some
housework. Experiments were still under way to “see whether the girl can finally
achieve normal intelligence” announced Xinhua.(50)

LOST IN THE DESERT

Three-year-old Michael Raadt and his cousin Thabiso Paint, aged two, wandered
off on 10 December 2001 while playing at the Luckhoff farm in South Africa’s
rural Free State, where their parents worked. Thabiso was found naked and
scratched near the fast-flowing Orange River three days later. Apart from
another track of tiny footprints, there was no sign of Michael. Police used
dogs and helicopters in a fruitless weeklong search, after which everyone
thought he had drowned.

Three weeks later, at 4pm on New Year’s Eve, Johan Lombaard was out on his
motorbike checking irrigation equipment on his farm when he found Michael 19
miles (30km) from home. He was covered in mud, wearing only a T-short and lying
on his side near a lake. “I walked closer to see whether he was still
alive,” said Mr Lombaard. “I could see he was breathing and told him
he had to wait there, I was going to fetch the bakkie [van]. He just blinked
his eyes. If the tough little tyke had walked around in the searing hot sun for
another day or two, he wouldn’t have made it.”

The province had been experiencing sweltering summer days with temperatures up
to 100F (38C) and there had been torrential thundershowers at night. Although
it is mostly farmland, the Luckhoff terrain is vast and isolated, thorny and
rocky, with snakes and predators including leopards. At the Pelonomi Hospital
in Bloemfontein, Michael was found to be covered in scabs, dehydrated and
suffering from mild pneumonia. He had lost a lot of weight. When his mother,
Tina Raadt, asked him how he survived, he said he had eaten “flowers”
and hidden under bushes at night. The “flowers” were probably berries
and pods. The police were mystified how he had survived such tough conditions
alone for so long.(51)

LATEST INDIAN CASE

Sudam Pradhana from the village of Bargania in Orissa, India, never went to the
local school and enjoyed tending cows and working in the fields. In April 1990,
when he was 13, he travelled to the dense Labingi forests in the Angul
district, 19 miles (30km) from his village, with his elder cousin Abhay who was
looking for a large log to make into a plough. Abhay told Sudam to rest near a
makeshift loghouse while he went in search of water. When he returned, Sudam
had gone. For several days, Sudam’s parents and their neighbours searched for
him without success. His father Gautam Pradhan never reported his disappearance
as he kept hoping he would turn up sooner or later — and he did.

On 4 May 2001, Gayachand Muduli and Deb Muduli from the neighbouring village of
Gadtaras, collecting firewood in the forest, encountered a wild creature with
long hair and unkempt winding fingernails sheepishly gawking at them while
sucking mangoes under a tree. “He was wearing torn trousers and carrying
an empty plastic bag. Mango pulp was smeared all over his chin,” said
Gayachand. “He made no attempt to run away on seeing us.”

They took him back to Garatarasa where he was identified as Sudam because of
scars on his skull and feet. “He now behaves like an animal and covers his
body with leaves,” said a villager. He greeted questions with blank stares
and struggled to utter a word or two in Oriya. He has big, white marks on his
skin as if he has been in combat with wildlife. “My son has returned home
after 11 years due to the blessing of God,” said his father Gautam
Pradhan.

Ganesh Pradhan, the police chief at Bantala, suggested Sudam might have spent
the last 11 years in the company of the honey-collecting nomadic Mallar tribe
which lives deep in the jungle. “It is also possible that he went across
the forest to the villagers of Cuttack or Phulbani district on the other
side,” he said. “After having wandered for long he might have found
his way back into the forest.”(52)

FERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Besides the (probably) apocryphal Syrian gazelle-boy, many wild children were
extraordinarily fast quadrupedal runners — almost ‘superhuman’. We might
recall that Atalanta, the bear-suckled heroine of Greek myth, was the most
swift-footed of mortals. When first captured, Memmie Le Blanc moved with
“a sort of flying gallop” and could out-run game; and the Saharan
gazelle-boy was clocked at 7mph (11km/h) faster than the best Olympic sprinter.

A facility for tree-climbing was another common trait. Peter, Memmie, Victor
and the Ugandan John Sesebunya were all agile arborialists; the last three were
cornered up trees before their capture. The wolf-child of Overdyke in Holland,
abandoned during the Napoleonic wars, climbed trees with wonderful agility to
get eggs and birds, which he devoured raw.(53) ‘Tarzancito’, the wild boy of El
Salvador (1935) slept in trees to avoid predators.(54)

A number of ferals were hirsute, including Jean de Liège (17th cent), the
second Lithuanian bear-child (1669), the Kranenburg girl (1717), the wild boy
of Kronstadt (fl.1784), the second Hasunpur wolf-child (1843), the Shajampur
child (1898), and the Naini Lal bear-child (1914). A young man caught in woods
near Riga, Latvia, in November 1936 was allegedly “covered in long thick
hair”.(55)

“Over time all my senses were heightened — my vision, my hearing, even my
sense of smell,” wrote Misha Defonseca, the Jewish orphan who wandered
through Nazi-occupied Europe. “That hypersensitivity stayed with me for a
very long time after I left the forest”.(15)

Feral senses were often more acute than those of socialised humans. Kaspar
Hauser and many of the Indian wolf-children, including the Midnapore girls,
could see well in the dark. Jean de Liège could recognise his warden by smell
from a distance; Kamala could smell meat from one end of the orphanage garden
— a compound of three and a half acres — to the other; and many wild children
sniffed at objects in the way that cats and dogs do. Victor of Aveyron, the
first Sultanpur child (1847), Kamala and Amala had an unusually sharp sense of
hearing.

Many wild children had a keen ear for music. Peter was delighted by music, and
would clap and sing. Memmie was a perfect mimic of songbirds such as the
nightingale. The Overdyke boy named each bird by imitating its cry. A naked
youth aged about 15, caught in woods near Uzitza, Yugoslavia, in 1934, could
mimic animals and birds as well as run amazingly fast.(56) The Turkish
bear-girl responded to music, sometimes bursting into wild, unintelligible
songs. John Sesebunya sings in a choir.

Another curious phenomenon is the wild children’s insensitivity to extremes of
temperature, a characteristic shared with desert nomad and gypsy children. This
was seen in the Irish sheep-boy, Victor, the Kronstadt boy, the first Sultanpur
child, the Midnapore girls, and the Saharan gazelle-boy. The latter was seen to
grab a handful of hot embers and hold them for some time without apparent pain,
while Victor took potatoes out of a pot of boiling water. At least eight ferals
angrily tore off any clothing they were dressed in.

Hardly any of them learnt to laugh or smile and their libidos seemed stunted.
Kaspar confused dreams with reality and spoke of himself in the third person.
Neither Victor nor Kaspar could recognise their reflections in a mirror; the
Turkish bear-girl would sit for hours in her room gazing at herself in a
mirror. Auger observed the gazelle-boy looking at his reflection in a pool of
water as if it were a stranger.

NOTES

[1] Procopius: De Bello Gothico, II, xvii. [2] FT59:20. [3] Carl Linnaeus:
Systema naturae (10th edition, 1758). [4] Robert M Zingg: “Feral Man and
Extreme Cases of Isolation” (The American Journal of Psychology, v.LIII,
No.4, Oct 1940.) [5] Claude Levi-Stauss: Elementary Structures of Kinship
(1949), p.50. [6] Phillipus Camerius: Operae horarum subcisivarum, sive,
meditationes historicae auctiores (Frankfurt 1609). [7] Sir Kenelm Digby: Two
treatises: in one of which, the nature of bodies; in the other, the nature of
man’s soul, is looked into, Paris 1644. [8] Nicholaus Tulp: Observationes
Medicae (1672). [9] B Ornstin: “Wilden Menchen in Trikkala”, Z.
Ethnol. Organ der Berlin Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie 23, 1891, pp.817-818.
[10] Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Discours sur l’Origine de l’Inégalité parmi les
Hommes (Paris 1754, pp.94-96.). [11] James Burnett: Antient Metaphysics: or,
the Science of Universals, vol.3, 1784, pp.59-68, 368-78. [12] Anon: The
History of a Savage Girl, Caught Wild in the Woods of Champagne (London 1760).
[13] Lucien Malson: Les Enfants Sauvages (1964), translated as Wolf Children
(London 1972). [14] Bruno Bettelheim: “Feral Children and Autistic
Children” in American Journal of Sociology, Mar 1959. [15] Misha
Defonseca: Misha: a Mémoire of the Holocaust Years (Mount Ivy Press, Boston
1997). FT117:22. [16] The story of Marcos Pantosa is told in Marcos: Wild Child
of the Sierra Morena by Gabriel Janer Manila (Souvenir 1982). [17] Sir William
Henry Sleeman: A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, 1849-50 (London 1858).
[18] H Ross: The Field, 9 Nov 1895. [19] The story of Amala and Kamala, based
on Rev Singh’s 150-page journal, is told in detail by Charles Maclean in Wolf
Children (Penguin 1977). Kamala, incidentally, is the name of a medicinal plant
used by Hindus against tapeworm. [20] FT44:4. [21] D.Mirror, 17 April; National
Enquirer, 23 April 1991. [22] Daily Mirror, 4 July 1970. [23] FT25:8. [24]
D.Mirror, 15 Aug 1973. [25] Barry Lopez: Of Wolves and Men (1978); [AP] 27
April 1986. [26] FT3:4. [27] FT155:8. [28] The History of Poland (1698) by the
Irish doctor Bernard Connor, who actually met one of the bear-children. [29]
Pierre-Joseph Bonaterre: Notice Historique sur le savage de l’Aveyron et sur
quelques autres individus qu’on a trouvés dans les forêts à différent époques
(Paris 1800). [30] Sir James Frazer ed: Fasti of Ovid (London 1929), quoting
North Indian Notes and Queries, Mar 1893. [31] Times of India, 4 April 1979;
Jim Corbett’s India, stories selected by RE Hawkins (OUP 1979). [32] Report by
George Maranz in American Weekly, 5 Sept 1937; Sunday Dispatch, 31 July 1938.
[33] Sunday Mirror, 26 June 1973; INFO Journal, No.11, Summer 1973. [34] Harlan
Lane & Richard Pillard: The Wild Boy of Burundi (New York 1978);.FT25:9.
[35] FT49:12. [36] FT130:18-19. [37] [AFP] 15 April 2002. [38] Jean-Claude
Auger describes his experience ‘Un Enfant-Gazelle au Sahara Occidental’ in
Notes Africaines No.98 (April 1963, pp.58-61) and in L’Enfant Sauvage du Grand
Désert (1971) under the pseudonym Jean-Claude Armen. This appeared in English
as Gazelle Boy (Universe Books, NY, and Bodley Head, 1974). [39] Pursuit, No.
3, April 1970, p.31. [40] Sunday Express, 25 Aug 1946; Robert Eisler: Man Into
Wolf (1951). [41] Report by Otis Daniels in Weekly World News, 8 July 1986;
FT49:12. [42] Probe India (Allahabad), Feb 1980. FT31:40, 47:74. [43] Kansas
City Times, 29 July; Wichita Morning Eagle, 31 July 1974. [44] FT45:45. [45]
FT150:9. [46] FT45:45, 80:8, 117:22. [47] Ananova, 13 Feb; Scotsman, 14+22 Feb;
Sun, 21 Feb; Metro, 22 Feb; Sunday Telegraph, 14 April 2002. [48] Notes
Africaines, 26 April 1945; Un-named paper, 4 Nov 1903; Guardian, 12 June 1980;
D.Mail, 16 Feb; Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne), 21 Feb 1999. [49] Robert Eisler:
Man Into Wolf (London 1951). [50] FT45:46, 49:12. [51] Independent, 4 Jan;
(Toronto) National Post, 9 Jan 2002. [52] Times of India, 18 May; The Pioneer,
27 May 2001. [53] Edward Burnett Tylor: “Wild Men and Beast Children”
in The Anthropological Review, v.1 (London 1863). [54] American Weekly, 27 Oct
1935. [55] [R] 17 Nov 1936. [56] [R] 16 Sept 1934.

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